Diabetes Mellitus


  
Definition
  
Diabetes is a complex metabolism disorder of carbohydrate, fat and protein in which the body cannot regulate the sufficient amount of glucose in the blood. Metabolism refers to the chemical reaction of digesting food needed for energy and growth. Most of the foods we eat is broken down into glucose- a form of sugar produced by the liver. Before the glucose entered into our cells, the presence of insulin- an enzyme produce by the beta cells of Islets of Langerhans located in the pancreas - is a must that serves a transport vehicle of the glucose. The glucose is primarily used as a fuel for energy and growth.
 
Types of Diabetes
 
Type I - This type of diabetes is previously called insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), wherein the cause is autoimmune process and the patient is totally dependent on insulin to prevent ketosis - abnormal accumulation of ketone in the body resulted by excessive breakdown of fats due to inadequate use of carbohydrates. Type I diabetes is also called juvenile diabetes because the onset of the disease starts in childhood stage.
 
Type II - Also called non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) which occurs during adult stage. The cause of this Type II diabetes mellitus is linked with risks factors that include high blood pressure, high fat level on the body, smoking, obesity, alcohol intake. Hereditary factor is also believed to be one of the factors that causes diabetes.

Symptoms of Diabetes

The following are the list of symptoms of diabetes.
  • Sudden weight loss
  • Polyuria (frequent urination)
  • Polydipsia (excessive thirst)
  • Polyphagia (excessive eating)
  • Fatigue
  • Irritability
  • Poor wound healing
  • Frequent skin and/or yeast infections
  • Itchiness on skin
  • Swollen gums and gum infection
  • Sexual dysfunction among men

Diagnosis

Several test are conducted in order to diagnosed diabetes mellitus. Usually, a urine test is carried out to detect any excessive amount of blood sugar in the urine. Another tests that are normally include are various blood tests, such as finger stick glucose test, fasting blood sugar test or HBA1c (hemoglobin A1c). 

Treatment

A periodic blood glucose monitoring is needed to check the levels of blood sugar in the body.
The following are the treatments to manage diabetes mellitus.
  • Healthy diet - Changing eating habits is the most common management advice by the doctor. This helps to control the level of blood sugar in the body and prevent the complications of diabetes. Depending on the severity of your diabetes, your doctor will give you details on what percentage of carbohydrates, fats and proteins should you consume per day. A referral to dietitian or nutrition is also applicable to help you guide on your diet plan.
  • Lifestyle modifications - Smoking and alcohol drinking are believed to be some of the contributing factors that link to diabetes mellitus. If you suffer from smoking and alcohol addiction, consult your physician for better ways as to how to change your lifestyle in a correct and proper way. Another helpful way also is to keep your body active by indulging in regular exercise and participating in various activities.
  • Drugs - This kind of treatment is primarily provided by your physician. The treatment would depends on the type of diabetes mellitus you have; the level of your blood sugar and how much insulin do you need in order to regulate your blood glucose level. 

4 comments:

Mrs. Kolca said...

This is the main reason why I control my diet and go to the gym. Both sides of my family has a history of diabetes. I just hope I can avoid it.

Thanks for posting informative stuff sis. I am now following your blog. Cheers! :)

MeMe said...

Thanks for dropping by sis!

Though there is a high possibility of acquiring diabetes from your parents, you can manage it throught proper diet and healthy lifestyle.

mel of mmdc7 Online said...

Diabetes also runs in my Father's side family. Hope, I don't get this medical condition because I already have a heart condition which I need to take medicine as maintenance.

MeMe said...

@ Mel
Thanks for the comment sis. Your condition is really at risk because you already have heart problem. Just keep your diet healthy as much as possible especially eating sweets. I saw your post about your birthday if i'm not mistaken. The food seems delicious but mostly sweet.

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